Chronology of Christianity (1)

Published on March 19, 2003

Retrieved on 20th March 2003 from Catholic Spiritual Growth and Reference Material website at http://www.cwo.com/~pentrack/catholic/chron.html

PART 1

The purpose of this chronology is to assist Christians of any denomination in their search for knowledge and truth regarding the development of the Christian religion. The primary sources used in assembling this list include a chronology by Paul Harvey, The World Almanac and Book of Facts, the Academic American Encyclopedia (on CompuServe), Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, and The English Versions of the Bible by John Berchmans Dockery O.F.M. Question marks on dates indicate approximate dates, question marks on other information indicates information which is theoretical and/or not universally accepted as fact.

1 AD-36?: Life of Jesus Christ
1 AD: First year in Christian calendar (a.d. = anno Domini) (see 525), Augustus (Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus) is emperor of Rome
6: Herod Archelaus deposed by Augustus; Samaria, Judea and Idumea annexed as province Iudaea under direct Roman administration, cap. Caesarea
6-?: Quirinius: Legate (Governor) of Syria, 1st Roman tax census of Iudaea
6-9: Coponius: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
7-26: Brief period of peace, free of revolt and bloodshed in Iudaea & Galilee
9-12?: M. Ambivius: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
12?-15: Annius Rufus: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
14-37: Tiberius I emperor of Rome, b. 42BC
25?: Assumption (Testament) of Moses, original Hebrew extant Latin (Apocrypha)
26-36: Pontius Pilate: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
27-29?: John the Baptist begins ministry (Luke 3,1-2) (15th year of Tiberius)
27-34?: Jesus baptized by John the Baptist (Mk1:4-11)
33-34?: John the Baptist arrested and killed by Herod Antipas (Luke 3,19-20)
33-36?: Jesus' ministry
36?: Jesus crucified, Friday, Nisan 14th, March 30th, [Ref: John, Unauthorized Version/Fox] Last Supper would have been Thursday evening. (7Apr30 & 3Apr33 possible Fri/14/Nisan crucifixion dates)
36?-65?: Period of oral tradition in Christianity between the time of Jesus and the time the first gospel (Mark) is written, original Christians disperse throughout Judea and Samaria (Acts 8,1ff), Peter leads the new Christian Church, moves the Church headquarters to Rome
36?-67: Period Peter leads the new Christian Church, moves the church headquarters from Jerusalem to Rome
36?-37: Paul of Tarsus has Stephen martyred and the Jerusalem church destroyed
37: Paul of Tarsus is converted (Acts 9)
37-41: Gaius Caligula emperor of Rome, declared himself god
37-41?: Marullus: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
40: Paul goes to Jerusalem to consult with Peter (Gal 1, 18-20)
41-54: Claudius emperor of Rome, killed by poisoning by his wife Agrippina
44: James, brother of John, executed by Herod Agrippa I (Acts 12, 1-3)
47-48: Paul and Barnabas on Cyprus (Acts 13, 4-12)
48-49: Council of Jerusalem, 1st Christian Council, doctrine regarding circumcision and dietary law is agreed to by apostles and presbyters, written in a letter addressed to "the brothers of Gentile origin in Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia" (Acts 15)
48-57?: Paul writes Galations
49-50: Paul in Corinth (Acts 18)
50?: Peshitta translation begun, Hebrew OT->Syriac Aramaic, (Greek NT in 400)
50?: Ascension of Isaiah, original written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible)
51-52: Paul writes 1 Thes
51-52: Paul writes 2 Thes
53-62: Paul writes Phil
54-68: Nero emperor of Rome
56: Paul writes 1 Corin
57: Paul writes Romans
57: Paul writes 2 Corin
57: Paul's last visit to Jerusalem [Acts21]
58: Paul arrested, imprisoned in Caesarea [Acts25:4]
59: Nero kills his mother, Agrippina
60: Paul imprisoned in Rome (Acts 28,16)
61-63?: Paul? writes Ephesians
61-63: Paul writes Philemon
61-63: Paul writes Colossians
61-63?: Paul? writes 1,2 Timothy, Titus, known as "pastoral epistles"
62?: James written by leader of Jerusalem community? (Gal 2,9?), "catholic" epistle
62: Paul martyred for treason in Rome
62: {Being therefore this kind of person [i.e., a heartless Sadducee], Ananus, thinking that he had a favorable opportunity because Festus had died and Albinus was still on his way, called a meeting [literally, "sanhedrin"] of judges and brought into it the brother of Jesus-who-is-called-Messiah, James by name, and some others. He made the accusation that they had transgressed the law, and he handed them over to be stoned.} [JA20.9.1,Marginal Jew,p.57]
62: Nero kills his wife Octavia and marries Poppaea Sabina
64: Great fire of Rome, started by Nero and blamed on Christians, {Therefore to squelch the rumor , Nero created scapegoats and subjected to the most refined tortures those whom the common people called "Christians," [a group] hated for their abominable crimes. Their name comes from Christ, who, during the reign of Tiberius, had been executed by the procurator Pontius Pilate. Suppressed for the moment, the deadly superstition broke out again, not only in Judea, the land which originated this evil, but also in the city of Rome, where all sorts of horrendous and shameful practices from every part of the world converge and are fervently cultivated.} [Tacitus Annals 15.44;Marginal Jew;Meier;p.89-90]
64-95?: 1 Peter written in Rome, by Peter the apostle?, "catholic" epistle
65-125: Period in which 4 Gospels, Acts, Revelations, and remaining epistles written – Peter martyred before 1st Holy Gospel is written, 7 Popes before last epistle is completed
65?: Q written, (German:Quelle, meaning "source") a hypothetical Greek text used in writing of Matthew and Luke
65-150: Didache: Instructions of the Apostles written
65-150: Dialogue of the Savior, Gospel of Peter
65-150: Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1224 fragments: pub. 1914
65-150: Gospel of Thomas written, based on Q?, pub. 1959, Greek originals: Papyrus Ox. 1,654-5
65-175: Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 840 fragments: pub. 1908
65-175: Papyrus Egerton 2 (Unknown Gospel) fragments: pub. 1935/87, in Greek from Palestine, one of the oldest extant Christian texts (~175)
65-250: Papyrus Fayum (P. Vindob. G. 2325) fragments: pub. 1887
65-350: "Jewish-Christian Gospels": 7 fragments of Gospel of the Ebionites and 7 fragments of Gospel of the Hebrews in Greek; 36 fragments of Gospel of the Nazarenes in Aramaic; [Ref: NT Apocrypha, W. Schneemelcher, vol. 1]
66-70: Roman-Jewish War: final destruction of Second Temple (Herod's Temple)
67: Peter martyred, crucified upside down in Rome
67-78: Pope Linus, 2nd Pope, succeeds Peter (Linus mentioned in 2 Tm 4,21)
67: General Vespasian of Rome conquers Galilee
68: Nero commits suicide, resurrects as "Nero redivivus", Rev's 666? (see 81)
68: Galba emperor of Rome (6/68-1/69)
68: Qumran (Essenes?) community destroyed by Rome, site of Dead Sea Scrolls found in 1949
69: Otho emperor of Rome (1/69-4/69)
69: Vitellius emperor of Rome (6/69-12/69)
69: Flavian Dynasty of Rome (Vespian, Titus, Domitian)
69-79: Vespian emperor of Rome, quells unrest in Rome and Jerusalem
70: Collapse of Jewish self-government in Judea and destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem
70: Gospel according to Mark written in Rome, by Peter's interpreter? (1 Peter 5,13), original ending apparently lost, endings added c 400
70?: "Signs Gospel" written, hypothetical Greek text used in Gospel of John to prove Jesus is the Messiah
70-640: Sanhedrin (High Court) period of Judaism, rise of house of Hillel
75-90: Gospel according to Luke written, based on Mark and Q
75-90: Acts of the Apostles written, same author as Gospel according to Luke
79-81: Titus emperor of Rome, eldest son of Vespasian
79-91: Pope Anacletus, 3rd Pope, known as "blameless" (as in Titus 1,7?)
79: Mt Vesuvius, volcano overlooking Naples Bay, erupts, engulfs Pompeii
80-85: Gospel according to Matthew written, based on Mark and Q, most popular in early Church
81-96: Domitian emperor of Rome, son of Vespasian, "Nero redivivus?" (see 68)
81-96: Revelations written, by John (son of Zebedee) and/or a disciple of his
90-100: 1 John written, by author(s) of 4th gospel, "catholic" epistle
90-100: 2,3 John written, by "elder", disciple of John (son of Zebedee)?, "catholic" epistle
90-100: Gospel according to John written, by John (son of Zebedee) and others, only eyewitness to Jesus?, disciple Jesus loved?, Gnostic?
90?: Josephus claims exactly 22 Jewish (OT) books: 5 Law, 13 History, 4 Hymns
91-101: Pope Clement I, 4th Pope, (mentioned in Phil 4,3), wrote letter to Corinth in 95 called "1 Clement"
94: "Jewish Antiquities", by Josephus in Aramaic, trans. to Grk., Testimonium Flavianum: {At this time there appeared Jesus, a wise man. For he was a doer of startling deeds, a teacher of people who receive the truth with pleasure. And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many of Greek origin. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him previously did not cease to do so. And up until this very day the tribe of Christians (named after him) has not died out.} [JA18.3.3 Meier redaction, Marginal Jew, p.61]
96?: Hebrews written, by ?
96-98: Nerva emperor of Rome
98-116: Trajan emperor of Rome, Roman empire reaches maximum size
100?: Odes of Solomon, written in Greek or Syriac, ref by John? (Apocrypha)
100?: Epistle of Barnabas, Christian exegesis of LXX (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
100?: 2 Clement, an old sermon but not by Clement (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
100?: 2 Esdras (Vg:4 Esdras), Hebrew?, claims 24 OT books (Vulgate & Peshitta)
100?: pocalypse of Baruch (2 Baruch:Syriac, 3 Baruch:Greek) (Peshitta)
100?: Paralipomena of Jeremiah (4 Baruch), written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible)
100?: Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, Aramaic and Hebrew fragments found at Qumran Caves 1,4 (Armenian Bible)
100?: Jude written, probably by doubting relative of Jesus (Mark 6,3), rejected by some early Christians due to its reference to apocryphal Book of Enoch (v14), "catholic" epistle
100-125?: 2 Peter written, by ?, not accepted into canon until early 400s, drew upon Epistle of Jude, "catholic" epistle
100-150: Secret Book (Apocryphon) of James, Gospel of Mary Magdalene, Infancy Gospels of Thomas and James, Secret Gospel (of Mark) (Complete Gospels)
101-109: Pope Evaristus, 5th Pope
109-116: Pope Alexander, 6th Pope
110?: Letter of Polycarp to the Philippians, written by Polycarp (160) (AF)
110?: "Letters of Ignatius", bishop of Antioch, martyred in Rome, his letters were subjected to heavy Christian forgery esp. 4th cent. (Apostolic Fathers)
116-125: Pope Sixtus I, 7th Pope
117-138: Hadrian emperor of Rome, builds wall across Britain
125-350: Period of Christianity during which the first Bible was assembled – Christians are fiercely persecuted and then finally tolerated by the Roman Empire, Great Plague in Rome
125-136: Pope Telesphorus, 8th Pope, martyred
125?: Papyrus 52: oldest extant NT fragment, p.1935, parts of Jn18:31-33,37-38
125?: Shepherd of Hermas, written in Rome (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
130-200: "Christian Apologists" writings against Roman Paganism by: Justin Martyr (165), Athenagoras (180?), Aristides (145?), Theophilus of Antioch (185?), Tatian (170), Quadratus (130?), Melito of Sardis (180?), Apollinaris of Hierapolis (180?), also Epistle to Diognetus in Apostolic Fathers
130?: "Gospel of Basilides", a 24 book commentary?, lost
130?: Papias, bishop of Hierapolis in Asia Minor, wrote: "Expositions of the Sayings of the Lord", lost, widely quoted, see Eusebius (340) (AF)
130?: Aquila of Pontus, Roman convert to Christianity then to Judaism, student of Rabban Gamaliel, compiled literal Greek OT translation in Jabneh (Jamnia)
132-135: Bar Kokhba Revolt: final Jewish revolt, Judea and Jerusalem erased from maps, all of southern Syria renamed Palestine (coined by Herodotus)
138-161: Antoninus Pius emperor of Rome
138-142: Pope Hyginus, 9th Pope
140: Letters of Marcion, produces his own canon without OT and using only a heavily edited Luke + 10 Pauline Epistles, cites "Western" Gospel text-type
140?: Apocalypse of Peter, written in Greek [NT Apocrypha,Schneemelcher,v.2]
142-155: Pope Pius I, 10th Pope
150?: Gospel of the Egyptians, Coptic translation of orig. Greek (Nag Hammadi)
150?: "Western Revisor" adds/subtracts from original Acts to produce "Western" version which is 10% larger and found in Papyrus P29,38,48 and Codex Bezae (D)
150?: Papyrus Chester Beatty 6: R963, Greek Num 5:12-36:13, Deut 1:20-34:12
155-166: Pope Anicetus, 11th Pope
160?: Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, martyred at age 86: "Let. to Philip." (110)
160?: Martyrdom of Polycarp, in Greek (Apostolic Fathers, ISBN:0-8010-5676-4)
161-180: Marcus Aurelius emperor of Rome
164-180: Great Plague in Roman Empire
166-174: Pope Soter, 12th Pope, moved Easter from Nisan 14 to following Sunday
170: Letters of Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons, cites "Western" Gospel text-type
170: Christian council on Montanist sect in Asia Minor
170: Letters of Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, claims Christians were changing and faking his own letters just as [he knew] they had changed the Gospels
170: Tatian produces "Diatessaron" (Harmony) by blending 4 "Western" text-type Gospels into 1
170?: Symmachus, an Ebionite, writes an entirely new Greek OT translation
174-189: Pope Eleutherius, 13th Pope
175?: Acts of Paul (inc. 3 Cor.), in Greek [NT Apocrypha,Schneemelcher,v.2]
180-192: Commodus emperor of Rome
185-350: Canon Muratorian, 1st extant for NT?, written in Rome by Hippolytus?, excludes Hebrews, James, 1-2 Peter, 3 John; includes Wisdom of Solomon, Apocalypse of Peter
189-198: Pope Victor I, 1st Latin Pope, 14th Pope, excommunicated Eastern churches that continued to observe Easter on Nisan 14 "Quartodeciman", (see 166, 190)
190: Christian council to determine "official" date of Easter
193-211: Septimius Severus emperor of Rome
197: Writings of Apollonius, uses the term "catholic" in reference to 1 John
198-217: Pope Zephyrinus, 15th Pope
200: Bishop of Antioch notes Gospel of Peter (see 65?) being used in Cilicia
200?: Papyrus 66: 2nd Bodmer, John, 1956, "Alexandrian/Western" text-types: Jn 1:1-6:11,35-7:52;8:12-14:26,29-30;15:2-26;16:2-4,6-7,10-20:20,22-23,25-21:9
200?: Papyrus 75: Bodmer 14-15, Luke & John, earliest extant Luke, ~Vaticanus; Lk3:18-22,33-4:2,34-5:10,37-6:4,10-7:32,35-39,41-43,46-9:2,4-17:15,19-18:18; 22:4-24:53; Jn1:1-7:52;8:12-11:45,48-57;12:3-13:1,8-9;14:8-30;15:7-8
200?: Papyrus 46: 2nd Chester Beatty, "Alexandrian" text-type: Rm5:17-6:3,5-14;8:15-25,27-35,37-9:32;10:1-11:22,24-33,35-15:9,11-16:27;Hb1:1-9:16,18-10:20,22-30,32-13:25;1Cr1:1-9:2,4-14:14,16-15:15,17-16:22;2Cr1:1-11:10,12-21,23-13:13;Ep1:1-2:7,10-5:6,8-6:6,8,20-24;Gl1:1-8,10-2:9,12-21;3:2-29;4:2-18,20-5:17,20-6:8,10-18;Ph1:1,5-15,17-28,30-2:12,14-27,29-3:8,10-21;4:2-12,14-23;Cl1:1-2,5-13,16-24,27-2:19,23-3:11,13-24;4:3-12,16-18;1Th1:1,9-2:3;5:5-9,23-28
200?:Papyrus 32: J. Rylands Library: Titus 1:11-15;2:3-8
200?: Papyrus 64 (+67): Mt3:9,15;5:20-22,25-28;26:7-8,10,14-15,22-23,31-33
200?: Old Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels, Syr(s) & Syr(c), of "Western" text-type
200?: Latin Bible translations begun in Carthage?, originals no longer extant
200?: Sahidic Coptic cop(sa) Bible translations written in Alexendria
212-217: Geta then Caracalla emperors of Rome
217-236: Anti-Pope Hippolytus, bishop of Rome, "Logos" sect, 1st Anti-Pope (illegitimate claimants of or pretenders to the papal throne)
217-222: Pope Callistus I, 16th Pope
218-222: Heliogabalus emperor of Rome
220: Goths invade Asia Minor and Balkans
220?: Clement of Alexandria, b.150?, bishop, cites "Alexandrian" NT text-type & Secret Gospel of Mark & Gospel of the Egyptians; wrote: "Exhortations to the Greeks";"Rich Man's Salutation";"To the Newly Baptized"; (Loeb Classics)
222-230: Pope Urban I, 17th Pope
222-235: Alexandar Severus emperor of Rome
223?: Tertullian, wr: "de Spectaculis" (Latin): v30.6 cites rumor Jesus son of prostitute, coined "New Testament", cites "Western" Gospel text-type (Loeb)
225?: Papyrus 45: 1st Chester Beatty, Gospels (Caesarean), Acts (Alexandrian): Mt20:24-32;21:13-19;25:41-26:39; Mk4:36-40;5:15-26,38-6:3,16-25,36-50;7:3-15 ,25-8:1,10-26,34-9:9,18-31;11:27-12:1,5-8,13-19,24-28; Lk6:31-41,45-7:7;9:26 -41,45-10:1,6-22,26-11:1,6-25,28-46,50-12:12,18-37,42-13:1,6-24,29-14:10,17-33; Jn10:7-25,30-11:10,18-36,42-57; Ac4:27-36;5:10-21,30-39;6:7-7:2,10-21,32-41,52-8:1,14-25,34-9:6,16-27,35-10:2,10-23,31-41;11:2-14,24-12:5,13-22;13:6-16,25-36,46-14:3,15-23;15:2-7,19-27,38-16:4,15-21,32-40;17:9-17
225?: Papyrus 967: Chester Beatty 9, Greek Ezekiel 11:25-end, ~Codex Vaticanus
230-236: Pope Pontian, 18th Pope
230-250: Christian council of Rome, Demetrius bishop of Alex. condemns Origen who in 248 cited a rumor recorded by Celsus that "Jesus fabricated the account of his birth from a virgin. In reality, Jesus' mother was driven out by the carpenter husband to whom she was betrothed because she had committed adultery with a [Roman] soldier named Panthera [thus the ben Pantere of Jewish sources]. Left poor and homeless, she gave birth to Jesus in secret. Jesus later spent time in Egypt, where he hired himself out as a laborer, learned magic, and so came to claim the title of God." [CC1.28-32, Marginal Jew, Meier, p. 223]
236-238: Maximus emperor of Rome, ends Christian schism in Rome by deporting Pope Pontian and anti-Pope Hippolytus to Sardinia where they soon die
236-237: Pope Anterus, 19th Pope
237-250: Pope Fabian, 20th Pope
238-244: Gordian I, II, Balbinus, Pupienus, Gordian III emperors of Rome
240-250: Christian council of Carthage
244-249: Philip the Arabian emperor of Rome
249-251: Decius emperor of Rome
249: Rome celebrates 1000th anniversary
250: Rome steps up persecution of Christians, martyrs revered as saints
250: Letters of Methodius, Pistis Sophia, Porphyry Tyrius; church fathers
250?: Mandeans (followers of John the Baptist) begin compilation of "Ginza"
250?: Papyrus 72: Bodmer 5-11+, pub. 1959, "Alexandrian" text-type: Nativity of Mary; 3Cor; Odes of Solomon 11; Jude 1-25; Melito's Homily on Passover; Hymn fragment; Apology of Phileas; Ps33,34; 1Pt1:1-5:14; 2Pt1:1-3:18;
250?: Papyrus Chester Beatty: #5:R962: Gn8:13-9:2,24:13-46:33,Enoch91-105; #7: I8:18-19:13,38:14-45:5,54:1=60:22; #8: Jr4:30-5:24; #10: Dn1-12:13(+Add),Bel4-39,Sus5-end,Esther1:1a-8:6(+Add)
251-253: Gallus emperor of Rome
251-253: Pope Cornelius, 21st Pope
251-258: Anti-Pope Novatian, decreed no forgiveness for sins after baptism
253-260: Valerian emperor of Rome, executes all Bishops, Priests, and Deacons
253-254: Pope Lucius I, 22nd Pope
254: Letters of Origen, Jesus and God one substance, adopted at Council of Nicaea in 325, compiled "Hexapla": 6 versions of LXX side by side: Hebrew, Hebrew transliterated in Greek, Aquila's Greek trans., Symmachus' Greek trans., Origen's revised LXX Greek trans., Theodotion's revised LXX; also Quinta/Sexta/Septima trans., Tetragrammaton in square Hebrew script; cites "Alexandrian" & "Caesarean" NT text-types; Eusebius claimed Origen castrated himself for Christ due to Mt19:12 [EH6.8.1-3]
254-257: Pope Steven I, 23rd Pope, major schism over rebaptizing heretics and apostates
257-258: Pope Sixtus II, 24th Pope, martyred
257: Visigoths and Ostrogoths invade Black Sea area, Franks invade Spain
258: Letters of Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, cites "Western" NT text-type, claims Christians are freely forging his letters to discredit him
260-268: Gallienus emperor of Rome, reverses Valerian, restores Roman Church
260-268: Pope Dionysius, 25th Pope, rebuilds Roman Church after Valerian's massacre
264-268: Christian council on Paul of Samosata, Bishop of Antioch, founder of Adoptionism (Jesus was human until Holy Spirit descended at his baptism)
264?: Letters of Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, b.190?
268: Goths sack Athens, Sparta, Corinth
268-270: Claudius II emperor of Rome
269-274: Pope Felix I, 26th Pope
270-275: Aurelian emperor of Rome
275-283: Pope Eutychian, 27th Pope, decreed that only beans and grapes be blessed at Mass
275?: Papyrus 47: 3rd Chester Beatty, ~Sinaiticus, Rv9:10-11:3,5-16:15,17-17:2
276-282: Marcus Aurelius Probus emperor of Rome
276: Mani, b.215, crucified, founder of Manichaean Christian sect in Persia
283-296: Pope Gaius, 28th Pope
284-305: Diocletian emperor of Rome, notorius persecuter of Christians
285: Roman empire partitioned into Western and Eastern empires
290-345: St Pachomius establishes 1st monastery in Egypt
296-304: Pope Marcellinus, 29th Pope, apostate, offered pagan sacrifices for Diocletian
300?: Bohairic Coptic cop(bo) Bible translations written in Alexandria
300?: Hesychius of Alex., martyr, translates Hebrew OT to Greek, lost [Jerome]
300?: Papyrus Berlin Codex of Greek Genesis; Papyrus Bodmer 24 of Greek Psalms; Codex Freer of Greek Minor Prophets; all published in 1927
300?: other 3rd century NT witnesses: P1:Mt1:1-9,12,14-20 P4:Lk1:58-59,62-2:1, 6-7;3:8-4:2,29-32,34-35;5:3-8,30-6:16 P5:Jn1:23-31,33-40;16:14-30;20:11-17, 19-20,22-25 P9:1Jn4:11-12,14-17 P12:Hb1:1P15:1Cr7:18-8:4 P20:Jm2:19-3:9 P22:Jn15:25-16:2,21-32 P23:Jm1:10-12,15-18 P27:Rm8:12-22,24-27,33-9:3,5-9 P28:Jn6:8-12,17-22 P29:Ac26:7-8,20 P30:1Th4:12-13,16-17;5:3,8-10,12-18,25-28;2Th1:1-2 P38:Ac18:27-19:6,12-16 P39:Jn8:14-22 P40:Rm1:24-27,31-2:3;3:21-4:8;6:4-5:16;9:16-17:27 P48:Ac23:11-17,23-29 P49:Ep4:16-29,31-5:13 P53:Mt26:29-40;Ac9:33-10:1 P65:1Th1:3-2:1,6-13 P69:Lk22:41,45-48,58-61 P70:Mt2:13-16,22-3:1;11:26-27;12:4-5;24:3-6,12-15 P80:Jn3:34 P87:Pm13-15,24-25 #0171:Mt10:17-23,25-32;Lk22:44-56,61-64 #0189:Ac5:3-21 #0220:Rm4:23-5:3,8-13 #0212(Diatessaron):Mt27:56-57;Mk15:40-42;Lk23:49-51,54;Jn19:38
303-311: Last persecution of Christians in Rome
304: Letters of Victor, bishop of Pettau
306-337: Emperor Constantine the Great, convert to Christianity
306-312: Maxentius emperor of Western Roman Empire
306-308: Pope Marcellus I, 30th Pope, tried removing prior Pope Marcellinus from official records for apostasy, exiled from Rome by Maxentius for disturbing the peace
310: Pope Eusebius, 31st Pope, deported to Sicily with anti-Pope Heraclius by Maxentius
311-314: Pope Miltiades, 32nd Pope, Constantine gives Fausta's palace as papal residence
312: Lucian, founded Exegetical School of Antioch, martyred
312: Constantine defeats Maxentius at Milvian Bridge, reunites Roman Empire
313: Edict of Milan, Constantine establishes toleration of Christianity
313: Miltiades excommunicates Donatus for requiring rebaptism of apostates
314-335: Pope Silvester I, 33rd Pope
314: Council of Arles, called by Constantine against Donatist (Donatus) schism
317: Letters of Lactantius, early Christian church father
321: Constantine decrees Sunday as offical Roman-Christian day of rest
325: Council of Nicaea, called by Constantine against Arianism (336), called 1st great Christian council by Jerome, 1st ecumenical, 318 bishops attend, Nicaean Creed
325?: Fayyumic Coptic cop(mf) translation fragment of John 6:11-15:11
330: Old Saint Peter's Basilica dedicated by Constantine, located over the traditional burial site of Saint Peter the Apostle in Rome on Vatican Hill
331: Seat of Roman Empire moved to Constantinople (formally Byzantium)
336-337: Pope Mark, 34th Pope
336: Arius, Greek theologian – Arianism (Jesus was a created being)
337-350: Roman empire splits again, Constans emperor of West until 350
337-361: Roman empire splits again, Constantius emperor of East until 361
337-352: Pope Julius I, 35th Pope
338: Jewish calendar modified with different year lengths to correct to Solar
340?: Eusebius of Caesarea (260-340), theologian & church historian, cites "Caesarean" NT text-type, wrote: "Ecclesiastical History" (EH); Loeb Classics: 2 volumes {Papias, bishop of Hierapolis (130?), claims that John the Elder, a disciple of Jesus, told him that Mark "was the interpreter of Peter and wrote down carefully what he remembered of what had been said or done by the Lord, but not in the right order." Also claims that "Matthew composed the sayings in Hebrew [more likely Aramaic] and each one translated them as he could."} [Ref: EH3.39.15, Unauthorized Version, Fox, p.126-127] Eusebius' NT Canon: Recognized Books: 4 Holy Gospels, Acts, 14 Pauline Epistles, 1Jn, 1Pt; Disputed Books: Rev, James, Jude, 2Pt, 2-3Jn, Acts of Paul, Hermas, Apocalypse of Peter, Barnabas, Didache, Gospel of the Hebrews; Rejected Books: Gospels of Peter, Thomas, Matthias, Acts of Andrew, John … [EH3.25], used the term "catholic" to refer to all seven epistles – James; 1,2,3 John; 1,2 Peter; Jude
350-400: Period of time between the 1st Christian Bible and the 1st Western Christian Bible, during which the books contained in Bibles varied
350: Letters of Adamantius, Firmicus Maternus; early Christian church fathers
350?: Codex Sinaiticus (S or ): earliest Christian Bible, (LXX – 2-3 Maccabees – Psalms of Solomon – Ps151 + 27NT + Barnabas + Hermas), missing Hermas31.7-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type
350?: Codex Vaticanus (B): earliest Christian Bible (LXX – 1-4Maccabees – Psalms of Solomon – Ps151 + 27NT), missing Gn1-46:28, Ps105:27-137:6, 1Tm-Phm, Heb9:14-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type
350?: Papyrus Antinoopolis of Book of Proverbs in Greek, published in 1950
350?: Papyrus Chester Beatty: #4:R961: Greek Gn9:1-44:22; #11: Greek Sir36:28- 37:22,46:6-47:2; #12: Greek Enoch93:12-13,94:7-8,97:6-104:13,106:1-107:3
350?: Papyrus Bodmer 45-46: Greek Susanna, Daniel 1:1-20 (Theodotion's LXX)
350?: Canon Cheltenham: 24NT books (excludes James, Jude, Hebrews)
350?: Akhmimic cop(ac) & Sub-Akhmimic cop(ac2) Coptic translations of John
350?: Ulfilas, apostle to the Goths (Germans), translates Greek NT to Gothic
352-366: Pope Liberius, 36th Pope
354-430: St. Augustine, Latin Bishop considered the founder of formalized Christian theology, church father
355-365: Anti-Pope Felix II, Arianism (336), supported by Constantius II
360: Huns invade Europe, scrolls begin to be replaced by books (Codex)
361-363: Julian the Apostate emperor of East, attempts to revive Paganism
363: Council of Laodicea names 26 NT books (excludes Revelations)
363: Letters of Marius Victorinus, Acacius of Caesarea; early church fathers
364: Council of Laodicea decrees death for Christians who keep 7th day Sabbath
366-384: Pope Damasus I, 37th Pope, hired thugs to massacre rival Ursinians (Liberians)
366-367: Anti-Pope Ursinus, leader of supporters of former Pope Liberius
367: Athanasias, bishop of Alexandria, first citing of modern 27 NT canon
367: Letters of Hilary of Poitiers, Lucifer of Calaris; early church fathers
367: Athanasius, d.373, bishop of Alexandria, first cite of modern 27NT canon
370: Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis, Cyprus; cites 27NT + Wisdom of Solomon
370: Doctrine of Addai at Edessa proclaims 17 book NT canon using Diatessaron (instead of the 4 Gospels) + Acts + 15 Pauline Epistles (inc. 3 Corinthians)
373: Letters of Ephraem Syrus, cites "Western" Acts text-type
378: Letters of Titus of Bostra, Ambrosiaster, Priscillian; church fathers
379-395: Theodosius the Great, last emperor of the united empire
380: Feb 27, Christianity declared official state religion by Theodosius
381: Council of Theodosius at Constantinople, 2nd ecumenical, Jesus had true human soul
382-384: Pope Damasus I has Jerome revise and unify Latin Bibles
383: Roman legions begin to evacuate Britain
384: Jerome presents Pope Damasus I with new Latin Gospels, originals lost
384-399: Pope Siricius, 38th Pope, criticized Jerome
390: Apollinaris of Laodicea, Jesus had human body but divine spirit
390: Letters of Tyconius, Gregory of Nyssa, Didymus of Alex.; church fathers
391?: Ammianus Marcellinus, b.330, Christian historian, wrote: "Res gestae"
393,397: Augustine's Councils, cites exactly 27 NT books (see 354)
395: Theodosius prohibits practice of Pagan rituals including Olympic Games
395: Ausonius, b.310?, Christian governor of Gaul; Loeb Classics 2v (Latin)
396: Alaric, king of the Visigoths, plunders Athens
397: Ambrose, b.333?, bishop & governor of Milan, wrote: "de Fide" …
399-401: Pope Anastasius I, 39th Pope
400-484: Era between 1st Western Christian Bible and the Great Schism – Christian doctrine is formed, Roman empire ends
400?: Vulgate Bible, by Jerome?, (340?-420) originals lost, Vulgate Latin text becomes standard Western Christian Bible
400?: Jerome cites "expanded" ending in Mark after Mark 16,14
400?: Jerome adds Pericope of the Adultress (John 7,53-8,11)
400?: Codex Vercellensis it(a): Latin Gospels, of "European" text-type
400?: Peshitta Bible, Syriac (Aramaic) Vulgate, Syr(p), OT + 22 NT, excludes: 2Pt, 2-3Jn, Jude, Rev; Peshitta becomes standard Syrian Christian Bible
400?: Codex Bobiensis it(k): ~half of Mt/Mk in Latin, "African" (Carthage) text-type, has "shorter" ending of Mark after Mk16:8
401-417: Pope Innocent I, 40th Pope, decreed Roman custom the norm for Christianity
401: Visigoths invade Italy
403: Letters of Epiphanius of Constantia, John Chrysostom; church fathers
410: Visigoths sack Rome under king Alaric
414: Letters of Nicetas of Remesiana, Orosius; early Christian church fathers
415: Bishop Cyril of Alex. (444) expels Jews, kills Hypatia with oyster shells
416: Visigoths take Spain
417-418: Pope Zosimus, 41st Pope
418-422: Pope Boniface I, 42nd Pope
418-419: Anti-Pope Eulalius
418: Franks take Gaul
420: St. Jerome, (S.E. Hieronymus), b.340?, Latin scholar; (Loeb Classics)
422-432: Pope Celestine I, 43rd Pope
423: Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus, notes Tatian's Harmony (170) in heavy use
431: Council of Ephesus, 3rd ecumenical, decreed Mary the Mother of God
429: Picts and Scots expelled from southern England by Anglo-Saxon-Jutes
430: St. Augustine, b.354, origin of "Original Sin," church father & philosopher, wrote: "The City of God", "Confessions"; Loeb Classics 10 v. (Latin)
430: Letters of Marcus Eremita, Nilus of Ancyra; Christian church fathers
431: Syrian Christianity splits into East (Nestorian-disagreed with Council of Ephesus) and West (Jacobites)
432: St Patrick begins mission in Ireland
432-440: Pope Sixtus III, 44th Pope
433-453: Attila the Hun, "Scourge of the Gods"
440-461: Pope Leo I, 45th Pope
444: Letters of Cyril of Alexandria, Arnobius the Younger; church fathers
450: Mark's Resurrection of Jesus added to Bible (Mark 16, 9-20)
450?: Codex Alexandrinus (A): (LXX – 1-2Maccabees + 14_Church_Odes + 27NT +1-2Clement), missing 1K12:17-14:9, Ps49:20-79:11, Psalms of Solomon, Mt1-25:6, Jn6:50-8:52, 2Cr4:13-12:6, 1Clement57.7-63.4, 2Clement12.5b-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type
450?: Codex Bezae (D): Greek/Latin Gospels + Acts; Codex Washingtonianus (W): Greek Gospels; both of "Western" text-type: "fondness for paraphrase"
450?: Codex Ephraemi Syri rescriptus (C): Greek LXX + 27NT, many gaps
450?: Codex Marchalianus (Q): Greek LXX + Luke + John, many gaps
450?: Codex Ambrosianus (F): Greek Genesis to Joshua
450?: Codex Freer: Greek Deuteronomy and Joshua
450?: Codex Colberto-Sarravianus: Origen's Greek Hexapla LXX of Gen-Judg
450?: Codex Palatinus it(e): Latin Gospels, "African" (Carthage) text-type
450?: Codex Veronensis it(b): Latin Gospels, "European/Vulgate" text-type
450?: Syr(pal), Palestinian Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels, of "Caesarean" text-type
450?: std. Aramaic Targums, T. Onkelos of Torah, T. Jonathan of Prophets
451: Council of Chalcedon, 4th ecumenical, declared Jesus is 2 natures, both human and divine in one, a compromise solution of Jesus god/man schisms
451: Nestorius of Constantinople, Nestorians: Mary was *not* "Mother of God"
451: Letters of Hesychius, Quodvultdeus; early Christian church fathers
454: Eutyches of Constantinople, Monophysites: Jesus was divine but not human
455: Vandals sack Rome
457-474: Pope Leo I, 46th Pope, becomes emperor of remaining (eastern) Roman empire
461-468: Pope Hilarus, 47th Pope
463: Letters of Prosper of Aquitaine, early Christian church father
466: Letters of Shenute of Atripe, Theodoret of Cyrrhus; early church fathers
468-483: Pope Simplicius, 48th Pope
474-491: Zeno, eastern Roman emperor
476: Official end of western Roman empire, last emperor Romulus Augustulus
480-547: St. Benedict, founded the Benedictines
483-492: Pope Felix III (II), 49th Pope
484-640: Period between Great Schism and the destruction of the Library of Alexendria – After the end of the Roman Empire, the Catholic Church sees a period of turmoil and division, Europe's population "halved" by plague, great earthquakes occur
484-519: Acacian schism, over "Henoticon" divides Eastern (Greek) and Western (Roman) churches. Photinus, deacon of Thessalonica, was of the Greek church and held to the Acacian heresy, which denied the divine paternity of Christ. Photinus persuaded emperor Anastasius I to accept the Acacian heresy.
484: Letters of Vigilius of Thapsus, early Christian church father
489: Zeno destroys Nestorian (451) school at Edessa, erects Church of St Simeon
491: Armenian Church seceds from East (Byzantium) and West (Rome) churches
491-518: Anastasius I eastern Roman emperor
492-496: Pope Gelasius I, 50th Pope, "Vicar of Christ" is first used as another title
496-498: Pope Anastasius II
498: Nestorians (451) settle in Nisibis, Persia
498-514: Pope Symmachus
514-523: Pope Hormisdas
523-526: Pope John I, martyr
498-506: Anti-Pope Lawrence, Lawrencian schism
500: Incense introduced in Christian church service, first plans of Vatican
500?: Codex Sangallensis vg: earliest extant Latin Vulgate, Gospels
500?: Codex Argenteus (got): earliest nearly complete Gothic (German), Gospels
500?: Codex Cottonianus: Greek Genesis
502: Narsai of Mealletha, Syrian poet, heads Nestorian school in Nisibis(498)
518-527: Justin I: emperor of Byzantine (former eastern Roman) empire
524: Boethius, b.480?, Roman Christian philosopher, wrote: "Theological Tractates", "Consolation of Philosophy"; (Loeb Classics) (Latin)
525: Dionysius Exiguus sets Christian calendar (a.d.) & Jesus' birth @ 23 Dec 1AD
526: Earthquake in Antioch kills 250,000

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