Brief chronology of religion and society

Published on May 5, 2003

By VirRen Team led by C.S. Marszalek & B. Panagakis

May 6, 2003

1417: "Great Schism" ends. (Since 1378, there had been two – sometimes three – Popes, each supported by rival powers in Europe. From now on, Popes become more secular; they are artistic patrons or warriors rather than religious men.)

1448: Concordat of Vienna, Emperor gives up attempts to reform the Church.

1466: Birth of Erasmus, Dutch scholar and leader of revival of learning in northern Europe.

1483: Martin Luther born.

1484: Bull condemns witchcraft. Inquisitors sent to Germany to try witches.

1492: Rodrigo Borgia elected Pope (Pope Alexander VI).

1517: Luther posts his 95 Theses on the church door in Wittenberg.

1521: Diet of Worms, Luther refuses to back down.

1534: Henry VIII of England breaks with Roman Catholic Church.

1534: St. Ignatius Loyola founds the Society of Jesus (called the Jesuits) to help reform the Roman Catholic Church.

1541: John Calvin founds "City of God" in Geneva.

1545: Council of Trent begins. Aims to reform the Roman Catholic Church.

1555: Peace of Ausgbury. Germans are obliged to follow the religions of their rulers. Applies to Catholics and Lutherans only.

1562-1578: French religious wars between Catholics and Protestants.

1575: Oratorio movement begun in Vincenza, Italy.

1582: Calendar reformed by Pope Gregory XIII. Only Roman Catholic countries accept it.

1592: New edition of the Vulgate (Roman Catholic Bible) published.

1611: King James Authorized Version of the Bible published.

1628: Edict of La Rochelle withdraws some privileges from French Protestants, but still allowed freedom to worship.

1648: Peace of Wetphalia extends Peace of Augsburg (1555) to Calvinists.

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